The OASIS WS-SecurityPolicy Examples Version 1.0 specification gives a set of example policies for standard security deployments, as well as the corresponding message exchanges generated by those policies. The policies in the spec cover UsernameTokens, X509 Tokens, SAML Tokens and SecureConversation, used in conjunction with various security bindings (symmetric/asymmetric/transport).
I have implemented a set of system tests in Apache CXF that use these policies with a standard "double it" web service invocation. All of the policies in the specification are covered, apart from 18.104.22.168 which is an uncommon use-case of using an IssuedToken policy to reference an agreed out-of-band token.
The example tests are a good way of understanding how to implement and use various security policies. Here are links to the various tests and WSDLs which include the corresponding security policies: